Soil Types

226. (1) For the purposes of this Part, soil shall be classified as Type 1, 2, 3 or 4 in accordance with the descriptions set out in this section. O. Reg. 213/91, s. 226 (1).

(2) Type 1 soil,

(a) is hard, very dense and only able to be penetrated with difficulty by a small sharp object;

(b) has a low natural moisture content and a high degree of internal strength;

(c) has no signs of water seepage; and

(d) can be excavated only by mechanical equipment. O. Reg. 213/91, s. 226 (2).

(3) Type 2 soil,

(a) is very stiff, dense and can be penetrated with moderate difficulty by a small sharp object;

(b) has a low to medium natural moisture content and a medium degree of internal strength; and

(c) has a damp appearance after it is excavated. O. Reg. 213/91, s. 226 (3).

(4) Type 3 soil is,

(a) previously excavated soil; or

(b) soil that is stiff to firm or compact to loose in consistency and has one or more of the following characteristics:

(i) It exhibits signs of surface cracking.

(ii) It exhibits signs of water seepage.

(iii) If it is dry, it may run easily into a well-defined conical pile.

(iv) It has a low degree of internal strength. O. Reg. 345/15, s. 24.

(5) Type 4 soil,

(a) is soft to very soft and very loose in consistency, very sensitive and upon disturbance is significantly reduced in natural strength;

(b) runs easily or flows, unless it is completely supported before excavating procedures;

(c) has almost no internal strength;

(d) is wet or muddy; and

(e) exerts substantial fluid pressure on its supporting system. O. Reg. 213/91, s. 226 (5).


227. (1) The type of soil in which an excavation is made shall be determined by visual and physical examination of the soil,

(a) at the walls of the excavation; and

(b) within a horizontal distance from each wall equal to the depth of the excavation measured away from the excavation. O. Reg. 213/91, s. 227 (1).

(2) The soil in which an excavation is made shall be classified as the type described in section 226 that the soil most closely resembles. O. Reg. 213/91, s. 227 (2).

(3) If an excavation contains more than one type of soil, the soil shall be classified as the type with the highest number as described in section 226 among the types present. O. Reg. 213/91, s. 227 (3).

Precautions Concerning Services


228. (1) Before an excavation is begun,

(a) the employer excavating shall ensure that all gas, electrical and other services in and near the area to be excavated are located and marked;

(b) the employer and worker locating and marking the services described in clause (a) shall ensure that they are accurately located and marked; and

(c) if a service may pose a hazard, the service shall be shut off and disconnected. O. Reg. 443/09, s. 6.

(2) If a service may pose a hazard and it cannot be shut off or disconnected, the owner of the service shall be requested to supervise the uncovering of the service during the excavation. O. Reg. 443/09, s. 6.

(3) Pipes, conduits and cables for gas, electrical and other services in an excavation shall be supported to prevent their failure or breakage. O. Reg. 443/09, s. 6.